Emendas alteram essência do marco regulatório do gás

A discussão sobre mudanças no novo marco regulatório do gás foi intensificada com o apagão que já dura mais de uma semana no Amapá. Antes mesmo do incidente, que está sob investigação, senadores apresentaram emendas ao PL 4.476/2020, aprovado pela Câmara dos Deputados no início de setembro. Parte delas altera a essência da proposta apoiada pelo governo: a substituição do regime de concessão pelo de autorização na atividade de transporte de gás natural. 

No sistema de concessão, a empresa privada precisa vencer um leilão da Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP) para participar do mercado de gás. Já no sistema de autorização proposta no projeto da nova lei do gás, basta que a empresa apresente um projeto para a construção ou ampliação de gasodutos após chamada pública e aguarde a aprovação da ANP. 

O senador Paulo Paim (PT-RS) apresentou duas emendas para preservar o regime de concessão. Segundo ele, o mercado de gás tem caráter essencial e estratégico para a economia do país.

 O modelo de autorizações facilita a total privatização do transporte de gás e contribui para a desvalorização e o esvaziamento da Petrobrás como empresa responsável pela exploração e refino do petróleo e gás no Brasil — criticou o senador em entrevista à Agência Senado.
 
Paim reforça que a atual redação da proposta “descaracteriza o regime de concessão e atende apenas o interesse das empresas multinacionais do setor de petróleo e gás”.

— As multinacionais não querem se sujeitar às regras do regime de concessão. As emendas pretendem preservar o regime de concessão por ser o que melhor atende ao interesse público e ao caráter estratégico e essencial do transporte de gás para a economia do país — apontou.

O governo afirma que a aprovação do projeto vai reduzir o preço do gás natural para os consumidores, principalmente para as indústrias e termelétricas, ao facilitar o aumento da participação de empresas privadas no mercado, hoje controlado pela Petrobras.

 Em vez de o governo brasileiro ter que gastar dinheiro fazendo gasoduto, o governo brasileiro tem que gastar dinheiro é justamente na saúde, no saneamento, na educação, na transferência de renda básica, em vez de ficar fazendo peças que o próprio setor privado pode fazer. Não precisa ser o setor público. Basta o Senado aprovar isso e começou o choque da energia barata — disse o ministro da Economia Paulo Guedes em audiência no fim de outubro.

Ex-ministro de Minas e Energia, o senador Eduardo Braga (MDB-AM) participou de uma live em setembro quando defendeu a inclusão na proposta de mecanismo que permita garantir a contratação de termelétricas a gás inflexíveis (que geram energia de forma ininterrupta) como forma de reforço ao sistema de transmissão do país.

 Se por um lado precisamos administrar a segurança hídrica dos nosso reservatórios, por outro o Brasil precisa voltar a ter térmicas inflexíveis de base e de forma regionalizada. Essa térmicas viabilizariam a infraestrutura de gás para o Centro-Oeste, para a Amazônia e todos os centros consumidores e poderiam ter usinar inflexíveis que garantiriam uma estabilidade e segurança hídrica e energética — afirmou.

Biometano

O senador Oriovisto Guimarães, por sua vez, pede por meio de emenda a liberação para que empresas que produzem biometano tenham acesso à rede de gasodutos de forma a incentivar a produção e o consumo do gás produzido a partir de resíduos orgânicos.

“O Biometano deve ter tratamento equivalente ao do gás natural, de modo a torná-lo ainda mais competitivo e conjugando os interesses de proteção ao meio ambiente com os interesses de desenvolvimento econômico e da infraestrutura do país” argumenta o senador na justificativa da proposta. 

Apesar de concordar com os argumentos do governo, o senador Lasier Martins (Podemos-RS) também quer mudanças no texto da Câmara, mas para rever decisão da ANP que excluiu cerca de 40 municípios vizinhos a plataformas continentais da lista de beneficiários de royalties de petróleo e gás desde 2002. Segundo Lasier, o Congresso precisa definir os critérios para encerrar a disputa judicial que vem sendo travada desde então:

“São cidades essenciais para o processo de produção do petróleo e do gás natural que ficaram sem qualquer possibilidade do recebimento desses recursos. A insatisfação dos municípios afetados com a reinterpretação da matéria foi levada ao Judiciário, resultando em um processo longo, entre recursos, liminares e diferentes entendimentos sobre a matéria. A questão ainda não foi pacificada nos tribunais superiores. Portanto, cabe ao Congresso Nacional legislar sobre o tema estabelecendo em norma federal o devido enquadramento das estruturas passíveis de gerar royalties aos municípios”, argumenta Lasier.

As quatro emendas e outras sugestões de senadores serão analisadas pelo relator — ainda não oficializado — que apresentará parecer pela rejeição ou aprovação das mudanças. Se alterado pelos senadores, o texto retorna à Câmara dos Deputados.

Agência Senado (Reprodução autorizada mediante citação da Agência Senado)

Fonte: http://www12.senado.gov.br/noticias/noticias/materias/2020/11/16/emendas-alteram-essencia-do-marco-regulatorio-do-gas
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